Microwave Chemistry

Microwave chemistry has made a huge impact on the everyday synthesis of organic molecules. The adoption and integration of this liberating technology has enabled us to resurrect many useful synthetic transformations that were previously considered too hazardous or perhaps ‘forbidden’ or just to slow to be of any serious synthetically useful value. In the early days using chemical microwave machines meant traditional batch reactions could be ‘boosted’ to either promote sluggish reactivity or to contain reagents for other reasons.

Continuous flow processing of chemical intermediates, taking advantage of the unique heating mechanism and characteristics of microwave irradiation, is undoubtedly the next evolutionary step forward. The synergistic combination afforded by the simultaneous application of these two core processing tools will enhance still further the synthetic capabilities of tomorrow’s chemists.

Microwave and flow syntheses of Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) and analogues J.T. Hodgkinson, W.R.J.D. Galloway, S. Saraf, I.R. Baxendale, S.V. Ley, M. Ladlow, M. Welch, D.R. Spring Org. Biomol. Chem. 2011, 9, 57-61

Pd-EnCatTM TPP30 as a catalyst for the generation of highly functionalized aryl- and alkenyl-substituted acetylenes via microwave assisted Sonogashira type reactions J. Sedelmeier, S.V. Ley, H. Lange, I.R. Baxendale Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2009, 4412-4420

Magnesium nitride as a convenient source of ammonia for the Paarl-Knorr preparation of pyrroles G.E. Veitch, K.L. Bridgwood, K. Rands-Trevor, S.V. Ley Synlett, 2008, 17, 2597-2600

A new focussed microwave approach to the synthesis of amino-substituted pyrroloisoquinolines and pyrroloquinolines via a sequential multi-component coupling process M.D. Hopkin, I.R. Baxendale, S.V. Ley Synthesis, 2008, 1688-1702

Flow and batch mode focused microwave synthesis of 5-amino-4-cyanopyrazoles and their further conversion to 4-aminopyrazolopyrimidines C.J. Smith, J. Iglesias-Sigüenza, I.R. Baxendale, S.V. Ley Org. Biomol. Chem. 2007, 5, 2758-2761

Microwave assisted Suzuki coupling reactions with an encapsulated palladium catalyst for batch and continuous flow transformations I.R. Baxendale, C.M. Griffiths-Jones, S.V. Ley, G. TranmerChem. Eur. J. 2006, 12, 4407-4416

The rapid preparation of 2-aAminosulfonamide-1,3,4-oxadiazoles using polymer-supported reagents and microwave heating I.R. Baxendale, M. Martinelli, S.V. Ley Tetrahedron 2005, 61, 5323-5349

Formation of 4-aminopyrimidines via trimerization of nitriles using focused microwave heating I.R. Baxendale and S.V. Ley J. Combinatorial Chem. 2005, 7, 483-489

Non-metal catalysed intramolecular alkyne cyclotrimerization reactions promoted by focussed microwave heating in batch and flow modes S. Saaby, I.R. Baxendale, S.V. Ley Org. Biomol. Chem., 2005, 3, 3365-3368

Microwave assisted Leimgruber-Batcho reaction for the preparation of indoles, azaindoles and pyrroylquinolines J. Siu, I.R. Baxendale, S.V. Ley Org. Biomol. Chem. 2004, 2, 160-167

Microwave promoted hydrolysis of esters absorbed on alumina. A new deprotection method for pivaloyl groups S.V. Ley and D.M. Mynett Synlett 1993, 793-795


Microwave reactions under continuous flow conditions I.R. Baxendale, J.J. Hayward, S.V. Ley, Comb. Chem. High T. Scr. 2007, 10, 802-836

Integrating microwave-assisted synthesis and solid-supported reagents I.R. Baxendale, A.-L. Lee, S.V. Leyin Microwave Assisted Chemistry. Ed. J. Tierney. Blackwells, 2005

Organic chemistry in ionic liquids using non-thermal energy transfer processes J. Habermann, S. Ponzi, S.V. Ley, Mini Rev. Org. Chem, 2005, 2, 125-137