The use of ultrasound techniques in flow

In recent work we describe the efficient and easily scalable transformation for converting alcohols and aldehydes to carboxylic acids and nitroalkane derivatives to the corresponding carbonyls and carboxylic acids using potassium permanganate as the oxidant within a continuous flow reactor [1]. Notably, the downstream processing of precipitated manganese dioxide in this application required the use of ultrasonics to ensure an even flow pattern and avoid fouling and blocking of the system.


1. KMnO4 mediated oxidation as a continuous flow process
J. Sedelmeier, S.V. Ley, I.R. Baxendale, M. Baumann, Org. Lett. 201012, 2618-3621


Ultrasound in synthesis, reactivity and structure concepts in organic chemistry Vol. 27, Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1989. (ISBN 3-540-51023-0).

Ultrasonic formation and Reactions of Sodium Phenylselenide
S.V. Ley, I.A. O’Neil and C.M.R. Low, Tetrahedron 198642, 5363-5368

Application of ultrasound to the preparation of tricarbonyliron diene complexes
S.V. Ley, C.M.R. Low and A.D. White, J. Organometallic Chem1986, C13-C16